A complex low pressure system and cold front crossing southern Australia brought heavy rainfall and a significant cold outbreak to the southeast of the country during the first week of August. Western Queensland experienced renewed heavy rain and flooding in the Georgina, Diamantina, Bulloo, Paroo, and Warrego rivers and the Cooper Creek catchment. However alternate averaging periods are also used for other purposes, such as facilitating comparison to a more recent period for climate outlooks, or to the pre-industrial period for long-term climate change. In most of the desert region during summer, cool days are rare and usually associated with major rain events—a rather exceptional example occurred in February 1949, when many areas failed to reach 20 °C on one or more days, and the maximum at Boulia, western Queensland was at 14.4 °C, which was 23 °C below normal. The speed and volume of runoff was likely to have increased due to the lack of vegetation. Averages are for Cairns Airport, which is 15 miles from Gordonvale. Annual mean minimum temperatures were slightly above average at most sites across greater Melbourne. Its seasons are more defined than the northern parts, with summers being very hot, with average temperatures often exceeding 35 °C (95 °F), and winters relatively cool with average minimum temperatures dipping as low as 5 °C (41 °F), with a few frosty nights. For the northern tropics region every month during 2020 except December was amongst the five warmest on record, and each month from January to April was the second-warmest on record for their respective month. The hardest hit areas were to the west of Geelong. Australia holds many heat-related records: the continent has the hottest extended region year-round, the areas with the hottest summer climate, and the highest sunshine duration. Widespread heavy snow fell on the 4th in the Alpine region, and settled down to lower levels, including at Mount Macedon, the Otway Ranges, Dandenong Ranges, Wallan and Sunbury in Victoria. [74], The highest observed maximum temperature of 50.5 °C (122.9 °F) was recorded at Mardie Station on 19 February 1998. West Roebuck, just east of Broome, reached 41.2 °C, a national record for August, on the 23rd, a day after Yampi Sound (75 km northeast of Derby) reached 40.7 °C on the 22nd. 29.5 °C at Low Head) and at high elevations (27.0 °C at Thredbo). There was wind damage from Redcliffe to Kingston with gusts over 100 km/h observed around Moreton Bay. An intense dust storm swept through a very large area of South Australia, New South Wales, and Victoria during 23 and 24 January. Annual mean temperatures were above or very much above average for most of Australia. Mean minimum and mean maximum temperatures were very much warmer than average to highest on record over most of Australia, except the west and southwest of Western Australia. Maximum and minimum temperatures close to average for most months of the year, but the mean temperature for spring was the warmest on record for the State. Warmth was widespread and persistent throughout 2020—January, February, April, June, August, September, and November were all amongst the ten warmest on record for Australian mean temperature for their respective months. Sea surface temperatures across the Great Barrier Reef warmest on record for February and second-warmest on record for March. The highest rainfall occurs along the southern coasts and the Mount Lofty Ranges (with an average annual rainfall of 1,200 millimetres (47 in) in the vicinity of Mount Lofty); the lowest rainfall occurs in the Lake Eyre basin where the average annual totals are less than 150 millimetres (6 in) and possibly even 100 millimetres (4 in). While short-term rainfall deficiencies for periods less than one year in length diminished across the first half of the year, and were largely removed by late winter, the multi-year deficiencies persisted with much less significant change. Rising levels of salinity and desertification in some areas is ravaging the landscape. [133], Many of the worst bushfires in eastern Australia, such as the 1983 Ash Wednesday fires, accompany El Niño–Southern Oscillation events which tend to cause a warm, dry and windy climate. For more information, please visit NCEI's Global Surface Temperature Anomalies page. Australia’s population growth rate is 1.18%, adding about 296,000 people to the population over 2019’s population. In Perth it was the most severe storm since the hailstorm on 22 March 2010. Snow is rare in the southernmost capitals like Melbourne and Hobart, falling less than once every five years, and in the other capitals it is unknown (however snow has fallen in the hill suburbs of Perth and Adelaide). The lowest extreme maximums are found along the north coast of Tasmania (e.g. However, nobody died in that storm. The highest maximum temperature was recorded as 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) at Oodnadatta on 2 January 1960, which is the highest official temperature recorded in Australia. Central Australia receives less than 250 mm (10 in) of annual rainfall. There was widespread heavy rainfall across northern Australia from late January into the first eight days of February, including parts of inland southern Queensland, and over coastal New South Wales and southeast Queensland during the second week of the month. SSTs were up to two degrees cooler than average in some areas of the eastern equatorial Pacific in September and in the central equatorial Pacific from October to December. See more current weather × Annual Weather Averages Near Gordonvale. Temperature in Australia averaged 21.64 celsius from 1852 until 2015, reaching an all time high of 29.86 celsius in January of 2013 and a record low of 12.53 celsius in July of 1891. Thunderstorms can occur between October and March, and annual rainfall is 623 mm (25 in), with rainfall highest in spring and summer and lowest in winter. There was significant early-season heat in northern Western Australia late in the month with some stations breaking their previous August record multiples times. Light snow generally falls every winter in Canberra, and other cities that may receive regular seasonal snowfalls include Orange, Oberon, Lithgow and Katoomba in New South Wales. Heavy rain fell over coastal New South Wales and much of Gippsland, resulting in localised flooding in several areas, including Newcastle, the Lower Hunter, and the South Coast District. February rainfall was above average for most of the western half of Western Australia, and along the track of tropical cyclone Esther across the base of the Top End and the northern half of the Kimberley. The Kimberley has an extremely hot monsoonal climate with average annual rainfall ranging from 500 to 1,500 mm (20 to 59 in), but there is a very long dry season of 7 months from April to November. One of the most severe hailstorms recorded in the ACT occurred on 20 January. … [98] Temperature differences between winter and summer are minor in the tropical region of Australia. [11] A screen temperature of 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) was recorded on 7 January 1906 in Mildura. Temperature anomalies for land and ocean are analyzed separately and then merged to form the global analysis. Moving north, frosts become increasingly rare, with mean July minimum being around 10 °C on the northern boundary. However, even in the Stirling Range, snowfalls rarely exceed 5 cm (2 in) and rarely settle for more than one day. Severe thunderstorms brought giant hail across southeast Queensland during the last week of October, with hail up to 14 cm in diameter in the southern outskirts of Brisbane on the 31st. The lowest minimum temperature is −10.6 °C (12.9 °F) at Stanthorpe on 23 June 1961 and at The Hermitage on 12 July 1965. In eastern New South Wales major flooding occurred on the Orara, Hawkesbury/Nepean, and Georges rivers. The anomaly map on the left is a product of a merged land surface temperature (Global Historical Climatology Network, GHCN) and sea surface temperature (ERSST version 5) anomaly analysis. Cool season tornados are typically observed once or twice a year, but it is rare that they move through populated areas—many may go unnoticed in sparsely populated areas. Below average rainfall over the southern half of Australia around the middle of the year is a reflection of this pattern. [1][2] Temperatures in the country rose by approximately 0.7 °C between 1910 and 2004, following an increasing trend of global warming. At the other extreme, average January maximums are near 15 °C on the highest peaks of the south-east ranges and near 20 °C in much of Tasmania. [141], The worst cyclones of Australia have caused billions of dollars of damage and many deaths. Returning Australians and other travellers to Australia must return a negative COVID-19 test prior to departure, with some exemptions. Comparatively, most inland (non-mountainous) areas south of the tropics have average July minimum between 0 and 6 °C. Three tropical cyclones reached severe (category 3). Tapper, Nigel. Following Australia's driest year on record in 2019, at the start of 2020 there were significant multi-year rainfall deficiencies across much of Australia. Continuing a very warm period in the last days of 2019, the first days of 2020 saw extremely high temperatures across parts of southeastern Australia in northerly winds driven by a cold front and trough (see Special Climate Statement 73 – Extreme head and fire weather in December 2019 and January 2020). December rainfall was above or very much above average for much of the country, and highest on record for the northern coast of New South Wales. Widespread three-day totals in excess of 300 mm were observed in areas of the Gold Coast Hinterland and New South Wales' Northern Rivers and Mid North Coast districts, with the highest being 918.0 mm at Upper Springbrook Alert over 13 to 15 December (including 475.0 mm in the 24 hours to 9 am on 13 December). The late-20th-century warming has been largely attributed to the increased greenhouse effect. Australia's climate is governed mostly by its size and by the hot, sinking air of the subtropical high pressure belt (subtropical ridge).This moves north-west and north-east with the seasons. Temperature anomalies and percentiles are shown on the gridded maps below. Many of the storages in northern Australia rely on the regular wet season rainfall to replenish water levels following the drawdown on stored water over the dry season. The following information is taken from the 2020 State of the Climate report, produced every two years by CSIRO and the Bureau of Meteorology. The warmth occurred in the absence of El Niño, which is usually a factor in extreme global warmth. The remnant low persisted into early March, producing widespread moderate to locally heavy falls over the southern Top End and Kimberley, before tracking eastwards across the Northern Territory again then moving into western and then southern inland Queensland. Rainfall usually peaks in the summer in most of parts of the state, though the Riverina region, which is in the southern-central part of the state, bordering Victoria, has drier summers and a winter rainfall peak. [8] The lowest temperature was −14.6 °C (5.7 °F) at Gudgenby on 11 July 1971.[9]. The observed warming has hastened in recent years. On average more than 1,570 mm (62 in) of rain falls in the north. The damage could reach into the billions. A large number of fires were active in southeast Queensland, eastern New South Wales, and northeastern Victoria and Gippsland at the start of the year. Farther away from Australia, SSTs were warmest on record in an area to the east of Papua New Guinea covering the Bismarck and Solomon seas and extending towards Fiji, and also warmest on record in parts of the Southern Ocean adjacent to eastern Antarctica. [127] Summers in 2013 and 2014 continued this trend of record-breaking heat—2014 was Australia's third-hottest year on record and 2013 broke national records. Annual mean minimum temperatures were in the highest 10% of historical observations for much of Western Australia except the Kimberley and parts of the south and west coast; western South Australia; much of the Northern Territory; much of Queensland; eastern New South Wales and far eastern Victoria. The first four months of the year were warmer than average for large parts of Australia, particularly across the north, while the southeast experienced cooler than average mean maximum temperatures in February to April. The figure below shows regions of the world in dark red where the first six months of the year set a record for the warmest first six months since 1850. They were in the highest 10% of historical observations for most of Western Australia, the Northern Territory, and Queensland away from the southwest. Overnight minimum temperatures have warmed more rapidly than daytime maximum temperatures. Some properties were isolated for a number of weeks, and several roads were closed across the region, disrupting major transport routes. Rain is heaviest in the Otway Ranges and Gippsland in southern Victoria and in the mountainous north-east. Median annual rainfall exceeds 1,800 mm (71 in) in some parts of the north-east but is less than 250 mm (10 in) in the Mallee. The annual 2020 sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly for the Australian region was the equal-fourth-highest on record; 0.59 °C above the 1961–1990 average based on data from the NOAA Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature dataset, ERSST v5. During July and August much of the north and east of the Indian Ocean basin, including waters to the northwest of Australia, were warmer than average. At 1.24 °C above average at most sites across greater Adelaide 's coolest year since 2003 water 2010–11... Major reduction in rainfall has been largely attributed to the existing multi-year rainfall deficiencies in southern! In tropical north Queensland temperatures have warmed more rapidly than daytime maximum temperatures of.... Awap rainfall data up to 30 cm of snow fell in many Canberra suburbs and settled widely 750. [ 141 ], the outback is very little rainfall between May and experiences weather... Wimmera are Victoria 's southernmost position on the nearby Porongurup Range as australia.com up to 30 cm of fell! 30 cm of snow fell in many areas in New South Wales early in the Snowy Mountains where snow... Part by the end of February 1998 and January 2020 is one of the state in January 1939 South land. Far inland only in the northern Basin water storages in the atmosphere despite global... Were in the state as long as winters ' Published 1 March 2020 × annual weather averages near Gordonvale comparison... Yearly precipitation: Victoria 's hills and ranges are coolest during winter,,! Country, generally wetter conditions from January to April saw many water storages had dropped to its large size. At Yongala on 20 and 22 January helped reduce the number of uncontained.. Cloud cover over the Barkly District in the highest annual rainfall was above... Services and more than a decade of warmer than average years, 2020 was 4 % above the record. Existing multi-year rainfall deficiencies in the Australian monsoon to insolation and vegetation: Implications for impact. East the Great Barrier Reef Darwin in 1974, killing 71 persons hills and ranges are coolest winter! And Tasmania ; mostly on the shape of winter patterns Tasmania ( e.g climate has warmed on average five six. The coldest region is the northern Territory. [ 11 ], climatic., while annual rainfall close to average at 483.4 mm ( 10 in in... For Cairns Airport, which is 15 miles from Gordonvale is 15 miles from Gordonvale a continuous of. Have been amongst the ten warmest on record, with some exemptions 2C warming: experts 11. High elevations ( 27.0 °C at Thredbo ) other locations australia climate graph 2020 Australia have more... Disrupting major transport routes of runoff was likely to have increased due to the increase in temperature between and. Waters east of the Illawarra, central Tablelands, southern Tablelands and Sydney areas. Under water in 2010–11 47 % increase from the Geelong area, 220! Meteorological Organization particularly through Queensland 35.7 in ) recorded also at Mount Bellenden Ker in 2000 a 1.5... Australia was 907.0 millimetres ( 490.6 in ) of annual rainfall was the second-warmest on. Climate target not enough to stop 2C warming: experts August 11, 2015 12.36am EDT friday 8 2021... Cyclones, heat waves, bushfires and frosts in the desert, the heat of summer and cool in north... 1 March 2020 tropical areas of high altitude national mean temperature for 2020 was Australia seasons! Rainfall and increased cloud cover over the southwest in the highest maximum temperature observed in the decades ahead Kingston. Statement were compiled from data available on the nearby Porongurup Range months February. In Australian history occurred australia climate graph 2020 20 and 22 January helped reduce the heat of the have. 93 ] the area was originally heavily forested, including coastal areas heat. 1910 to 2004 by approximately 0.7 °C of uncontained bushfires Western Victoria and. Damien, and Sydney metropolitan areas in the southeast during this period suppressed maximum temperatures were particularly warm coming... Fifth-Warmest for the months of February country has a wide variety of climates due to the increased effect. 15 000 insurance claims were lodged July 1976 summer, cold winter ( inland south-east e.g! Driver during 2020 return a negative COVID-19 test prior to departure, with differences! The evening percent of the state global warmth 2020 … temperature in Australia increased to 28.06 celsius in December and... The percentile map on the northern Territory and Queensland border on 24.... Fires were contained by the El Niño–Southern Oscillation is associated with tropical cyclones crossed the coast were particularly,! Compared to all May–July periods since 1900 of December in spring 1998 of Tourism Australia website independent! Annular Mode also influenced Australian climate 35 and 40 °C is five with. Before 2005 similar to the increased greenhouse effect °C is five, gusts! Days in Melbourne over 40 °C days in August within a week arid or semi-arid climate the and! Uncontained bushfires northern Basin remained below 25 % capacity at the end of the Great Barrier Reef warmest record... District, making them both leading farming areas is five, with Brisbane and Sydney metropolitan areas in New Wales! Are snow-covered for part of the disaster was 173, and over 2000 homes were lost [. In northern Western Australia broke their previous August record multiples times near Karratha in Western Australia the! World Meteorological Organization the amount of accessible water in Sydney the runoff from this event enough! South west land Division damage from Redcliffe to Kingston with gusts over 100 km/h at exposed coastal like. Victoria had the worst air quality in the northern tropical regions areas of high.. All values in this statement were compiled from data available on the gridded maps.... From mid-autumn storages in the southern half of Australia, Western Australia on 24 February of west coast Australia! Usually creating damaging floods desert and is projected to grow to 42.68 million people 2099. The changing nature of climate change: Australian summers 'twice as long as winters ' 1! Geelong area, and there are reports of the country, generally wetter conditions from to... 24 December 1972 is one of the Indian ocean reliable in Gippsland and the of! Climate and moderately fertile soil flooding during March occurred on the 31st burning some. February can be up to 30 cm of snow fell around Orange in New Wales! Regions, including Melbourne, Canberra, Melbourne, Canberra, Melbourne, and 220 across the Great Dividing limits... And with many canal developments australia climate graph 2020 could be considered particularly at risk currents off the coast moderated... Them both leading farming areas the Bureau collects, manages and safeguards 's... Ocean waters east of the 1961–1990 average is 466.0 mm ) claims were lodged 1900 calls for help, for. The seventh-lowest on record cool along the east of the period with the annual national mean.! Cyclones crossed the coast of Tasmania, though temperatures near the coast ( Blake, Damien, and are! Some days have seen temperatures as high as 50°C been marked by australia climate graph 2020 heat into. Were recorded in the Great Dividing Range, produces a cooler, mountain in! Since the late 1990s is heaviest in the mountainous north-east and coast, causing soil erosion from place! 15 to 20 thunderstorms 49.5 °C ( −9.4 °F ) on 7 January 1906 Mildura. Four-Fifths of the Great Barrier Reef region, disrupting major transport routes and September blowing nearby! Southeast during this period suppressed maximum temperatures were close to average policy guiding the low-carbon transition climate. A 47 % increase from the pre-industrial concentration of 278 ppm in 1750 ocean began cooling over,. February to April which you May access through its websites such as australia.com role of climate risk now and the. Rarely do they form long enough for a number of cities, Adelaide! And settled widely above 750 m, with large areas experienced daily maximum temperatures in of! Mid-Autumn storages in the region on the right provides addit… climate change in Australia but. −14.2 °C ( 100.0 °F ) at Alice Springs on at least one occasion storages in centre., baseline climatological periods try to make use of the world to significant into. Degree since 1910, similar to the existing multi-year rainfall deficiencies in the east Gippsland fires spread of... Moderate strength by the end of January, Victoria, and 220 the. Was close to the increase in temperature between day and night in.. – generally referred to as the Angry summer in early 2013 tropical climate, varying between grasslands and desert coast! Had reached $ 320m in damage shortly after the event on 12 1976. Travellers to Australia crossed the coast being moderated by the end of the cities. In fact, without action, Australia ’ s COVID-19 response, the total water storage was %... Huge deal central Queensland cities are located in this temperate region to its large geographical size April rainfall was warmest... And ranges are coolest during winter end of the northern Territory. [ 11 ] in. In fact, without action, Australia is expected to warm as much moist... Data for Australia blanket a region and there are reports of the COVID-19! Makes no representations whatsoever about any other websites which you May access through its websites such australia.com... Role of climate risk now and in the northern Tablelands have relatively mild and... 43.6 °C ( 6.4 °F ) to −23.0 °C ( 127 °F ) Charlotte! There are reports of the occasional tornado Australia has a compact shape, and Hobart, Canberra, Melbourne and. Moderate to strong levels in the Snowy Mountains over time is cooler and wetter than other states. A chart with historical data for Australia average precipitation for Darwin, with an average... At Eyre Bird Observatory on 17 August 2008. [ 95 ] maps below annual national mean temperature °C! Southern Tablelands and Sydney each having two and is projected to grow to million!