A complex low pressure system and cold front crossing southern Australia brought heavy rainfall and a significant cold outbreak to the southeast of the country during the first week of August. Western Queensland experienced renewed heavy rain and flooding in the Georgina, Diamantina, Bulloo, Paroo, and Warrego rivers and the Cooper Creek catchment. However alternate averaging periods are also used for other purposes, such as facilitating comparison to a more recent period for climate outlooks, or to the pre-industrial period for long-term climate change. In most of the desert region during summer, cool days are rare and usually associated with major rain events—a rather exceptional example occurred in February 1949, when many areas failed to reach 20 °C on one or more days, and the maximum at Boulia, western Queensland was at 14.4 °C, which was 23 °C below normal. The speed and volume of runoff was likely to have increased due to the lack of vegetation. Averages are for Cairns Airport, which is 15 miles from Gordonvale. Annual mean minimum temperatures were slightly above average at most sites across greater Melbourne. Its seasons are more defined than the northern parts, with summers being very hot, with average temperatures often exceeding 35 °C (95 °F), and winters relatively cool with average minimum temperatures dipping as low as 5 °C (41 °F), with a few frosty nights. For the northern tropics region every month during 2020 except December was amongst the five warmest on record, and each month from January to April was the second-warmest on record for their respective month. The hardest hit areas were to the west of Geelong. Australia holds many heat-related records: the continent has the hottest extended region year-round, the areas with the hottest summer climate, and the highest sunshine duration. Widespread heavy snow fell on the 4th in the Alpine region, and settled down to lower levels, including at Mount Macedon, the Otway Ranges, Dandenong Ranges, Wallan and Sunbury in Victoria. , The highest observed maximum temperature of 50.5 °C (122.9 °F) was recorded at Mardie Station on 19 February 1998. West Roebuck, just east of Broome, reached 41.2 °C, a national record for August, on the 23rd, a day after Yampi Sound (75 km northeast of Derby) reached 40.7 °C on the 22nd. 29.5 °C at Low Head) and at high elevations (27.0 °C at Thredbo). There was wind damage from Redcliffe to Kingston with gusts over 100 km/h observed around Moreton Bay. An intense dust storm swept through a very large area of South Australia, New South Wales, and Victoria during 23 and 24 January. Annual mean temperatures were above or very much above average for most of Australia. Mean minimum and mean maximum temperatures were very much warmer than average to highest on record over most of Australia, except the west and southwest of Western Australia. Maximum and minimum temperatures close to average for most months of the year, but the mean temperature for spring was the warmest on record for the State. Warmth was widespread and persistent throughout 2020—January, February, April, June, August, September, and November were all amongst the ten warmest on record for Australian mean temperature for their respective months. Sea surface temperatures across the Great Barrier Reef warmest on record for February and second-warmest on record for March. The highest rainfall occurs along the southern coasts and the Mount Lofty Ranges (with an average annual rainfall of 1,200 millimetres (47 in) in the vicinity of Mount Lofty); the lowest rainfall occurs in the Lake Eyre basin where the average annual totals are less than 150 millimetres (6 in) and possibly even 100 millimetres (4 in). While short-term rainfall deficiencies for periods less than one year in length diminished across the first half of the year, and were largely removed by late winter, the multi-year deficiencies persisted with much less significant change. Rising levels of salinity and desertification in some areas is ravaging the landscape. , Many of the worst bushfires in eastern Australia, such as the 1983 Ash Wednesday fires, accompany El Niño–Southern Oscillation events which tend to cause a warm, dry and windy climate. For more information, please visit NCEI's Global Surface Temperature Anomalies page. Australia’s population growth rate is 1.18%, adding about 296,000 people to the population over 2019’s population. In Perth it was the most severe storm since the hailstorm on 22 March 2010. Snow is rare in the southernmost capitals like Melbourne and Hobart, falling less than once every five years, and in the other capitals it is unknown (however snow has fallen in the hill suburbs of Perth and Adelaide). The lowest extreme maximums are found along the north coast of Tasmania (e.g. However, nobody died in that storm. The highest maximum temperature was recorded as 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) at Oodnadatta on 2 January 1960, which is the highest official temperature recorded in Australia. Central Australia receives less than 250 mm (10 in) of annual rainfall. There was widespread heavy rainfall across northern Australia from late January into the first eight days of February, including parts of inland southern Queensland, and over coastal New South Wales and southeast Queensland during the second week of the month. SSTs were up to two degrees cooler than average in some areas of the eastern equatorial Pacific in September and in the central equatorial Pacific from October to December. See more current weather × Annual Weather Averages Near Gordonvale. Temperature in Australia averaged 21.64 celsius from 1852 until 2015, reaching an all time high of 29.86 celsius in January of 2013 and a record low of 12.53 celsius in July of 1891. Thunderstorms can occur between October and March, and annual rainfall is 623 mm (25 in), with rainfall highest in spring and summer and lowest in winter. There was significant early-season heat in northern Western Australia late in the month with some stations breaking their previous August record multiples times. Light snow generally falls every winter in Canberra, and other cities that may receive regular seasonal snowfalls include Orange, Oberon, Lithgow and Katoomba in New South Wales. Heavy rain fell over coastal New South Wales and much of Gippsland, resulting in localised flooding in several areas, including Newcastle, the Lower Hunter, and the South Coast District. February rainfall was above average for most of the western half of Western Australia, and along the track of tropical cyclone Esther across the base of the Top End and the northern half of the Kimberley. The Kimberley has an extremely hot monsoonal climate with average annual rainfall ranging from 500 to 1,500 mm (20 to 59 in), but there is a very long dry season of 7 months from April to November. One of the most severe hailstorms recorded in the ACT occurred on 20 January. …  Temperature differences between winter and summer are minor in the tropical region of Australia.  A screen temperature of 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) was recorded on 7 January 1906 in Mildura. Temperature anomalies for land and ocean are analyzed separately and then merged to form the global analysis. Moving north, frosts become increasingly rare, with mean July minimum being around 10 °C on the northern boundary. However, even in the Stirling Range, snowfalls rarely exceed 5 cm (2 in) and rarely settle for more than one day. Severe thunderstorms brought giant hail across southeast Queensland during the last week of October, with hail up to 14 cm in diameter in the southern outskirts of Brisbane on the 31st. The lowest minimum temperature is −10.6 °C (12.9 °F) at Stanthorpe on 23 June 1961 and at The Hermitage on 12 July 1965. In eastern New South Wales major flooding occurred on the Orara, Hawkesbury/Nepean, and Georges rivers. The anomaly map on the left is a product of a merged land surface temperature (Global Historical Climatology Network, GHCN) and sea surface temperature (ERSST version 5) anomaly analysis. Cool season tornados are typically observed once or twice a year, but it is rare that they move through populated areas—many may go unnoticed in sparsely populated areas. Below average rainfall over the southern half of Australia around the middle of the year is a reflection of this pattern.  Temperatures in the country rose by approximately 0.7 °C between 1910 and 2004, following an increasing trend of global warming. At the other extreme, average January maximums are near 15 °C on the highest peaks of the south-east ranges and near 20 °C in much of Tasmania. , The worst cyclones of Australia have caused billions of dollars of damage and many deaths. Returning Australians and other travellers to Australia must return a negative COVID-19 test prior to departure, with some exemptions. Comparatively, most inland (non-mountainous) areas south of the tropics have average July minimum between 0 and 6 °C. Three tropical cyclones reached severe (category 3). Tapper, Nigel. Following Australia's driest year on record in 2019, at the start of 2020 there were significant multi-year rainfall deficiencies across much of Australia. Continuing a very warm period in the last days of 2019, the first days of 2020 saw extremely high temperatures across parts of southeastern Australia in northerly winds driven by a cold front and trough (see Special Climate Statement 73 – Extreme head and fire weather in December 2019 and January 2020). December rainfall was above or very much above average for much of the country, and highest on record for the northern coast of New South Wales. Widespread three-day totals in excess of 300 mm were observed in areas of the Gold Coast Hinterland and New South Wales' Northern Rivers and Mid North Coast districts, with the highest being 918.0 mm at Upper Springbrook Alert over 13 to 15 December (including 475.0 mm in the 24 hours to 9 am on 13 December). The late-20th-century warming has been largely attributed to the increased greenhouse effect. Australia's climate is governed mostly by its size and by the hot, sinking air of the subtropical high pressure belt (subtropical ridge).This moves north-west and north-east with the seasons. Temperature anomalies and percentiles are shown on the gridded maps below. Many of the storages in northern Australia rely on the regular wet season rainfall to replenish water levels following the drawdown on stored water over the dry season. The following information is taken from the 2020 State of the Climate report, produced every two years by CSIRO and the Bureau of Meteorology. The warmth occurred in the absence of El Niño, which is usually a factor in extreme global warmth. The remnant low persisted into early March, producing widespread moderate to locally heavy falls over the southern Top End and Kimberley, before tracking eastwards across the Northern Territory again then moving into western and then southern inland Queensland. Rainfall usually peaks in the summer in most of parts of the state, though the Riverina region, which is in the southern-central part of the state, bordering Victoria, has drier summers and a winter rainfall peak.  The lowest temperature was −14.6 °C (5.7 °F) at Gudgenby on 11 July 1971.. The observed warming has hastened in recent years. On average more than 1,570 mm (62 in) of rain falls in the north. The damage could reach into the billions. A large number of fires were active in southeast Queensland, eastern New South Wales, and northeastern Victoria and Gippsland at the start of the year. Farther away from Australia, SSTs were warmest on record in an area to the east of Papua New Guinea covering the Bismarck and Solomon seas and extending towards Fiji, and also warmest on record in parts of the Southern Ocean adjacent to eastern Antarctica.  Summers in 2013 and 2014 continued this trend of record-breaking heat—2014 was Australia's third-hottest year on record and 2013 broke national records. Annual mean minimum temperatures were in the highest 10% of historical observations for much of Western Australia except the Kimberley and parts of the south and west coast; western South Australia; much of the Northern Territory; much of Queensland; eastern New South Wales and far eastern Victoria. The first four months of the year were warmer than average for large parts of Australia, particularly across the north, while the southeast experienced cooler than average mean maximum temperatures in February to April. The figure below shows regions of the world in dark red where the first six months of the year set a record for the warmest first six months since 1850. They were in the highest 10% of historical observations for most of Western Australia, the Northern Territory, and Queensland away from the southwest. Overnight minimum temperatures have warmed more rapidly than daytime maximum temperatures. Some properties were isolated for a number of weeks, and several roads were closed across the region, disrupting major transport routes. Rain is heaviest in the Otway Ranges and Gippsland in southern Victoria and in the mountainous north-east. Median annual rainfall exceeds 1,800 mm (71 in) in some parts of the north-east but is less than 250 mm (10 in) in the Mallee. 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