(2) A technique to notify the CPU that a peripheral device needs service, i.e., the device has data for the processor or the device is awaiting data from the processor. (ISO) A device that generates periodic, accurately spaced signals used for such purposes as timing, regulation of the operations of a processor, or generation of interrupts. It is also a resource for investigators who conduct inspections and investigations involving software and computerized systems. Using a modem to communicate between computers. Contrast with software. (IEEE) A requirement that specifies an external item with which a system or system component must interact, or sets forth constraints on formats, timing, or other factors caused by such an interaction. test result analyzer. parallel. (2) A value which lies at, or just inside or just outside a specified range of valid input and output values. (DOD) A comprehensive evaluation of the risk and its associated impact. testing, structural. testing, qualification. See: accuracy, precision, calibration. An unintended alteration of a program's behavior caused by a change in one part of the program, without taking into account the effect the change has on another part of the program. (ISO) An examination of the procedures used in a computer system to evaluate their effectiveness and correctness and to recommend improvements. The base two number system. (3) A group of bits or digits that are transmitted as a unit and that may be encoded for error-control purposes. A software tool used to test output data reduction, formatting, and printing. Analysis of the known or anticipated need for a product, system, or component to assess the degree to which the requirements, designs, or plans can be implemented. (2) To produce a record as in (1). Comments about the glossary's presentation and functionality should be sent to secglossary@nist.gov.. See NISTIR 7298 Rev. (ANSI) The activity of keeping a file up to date by adding, changing, or deleting data. (IEEE) Verifies that each safety-critical software requirement is covered and that an appropriate criticality level is assigned to each software element. It cannot be erased and reprogrammed. (IEEE) A document that describes the design of a system or component. Contrast with assemble, compile. See: testing, functional. (1) (IEEE) A computer program that translates programs expressed in a high-level language into their machine language equivalents. special test data. positive channel MOS. (3) The elementary unit of a record that may contain a data item, a data aggregate, a pointer, or a link. (IEEE) A requirement that specifies a function that a system or system component must be able to perform. Storage device other than main memory [RAM]; e.g., disks and tapes. Contrast with digital. Contrast with sizing. See: ASCII. See: test case. usability. An error detection method in data transmissions that consists of selectively adding a 1-bit to bit patterns [word, byte, character, message] to cause the bit patterns to have either an odd number of 1-bits [odd parity] or an even number of 1-bits [even parity]. See: consistency. See: software reliability. See: requirements specification. erasable programmable read only memory. Contrast with EDSI, SCSI, ST-506. See: bug, defect, error, exception, fault. vendor. The CPU may not store data to this memory. See: bomb, trojan horse, virus. The process may include format checks, completeness checks, check key tests, reasonableness checks and limit checks. (1) (ANSI) People, machines, and methods organized to accomplish a set of specific functions. programming style analysis. (2) Evaluates the sequence of operations represented by the coded program and detects programming errors that might create hazards. FDA-iRISK provides an option for using DALY, QALY loss or COI as a health metric. The degree to which a database is protected from exposure to accidental or malicious alteration or destruction. (1) (ISO) Application- independent software that supports the running of application software. boundary value. (ISO) A limit check in which both high and low values are stipulated. peripheral device. A refinement called hierarchical input-process-output identifies the steps, inputs, and outputs at both general and detailed levels of detail. Contrast with test driver. specification, product. Syn: Fagan Inspection. Chips which may be programmed and erased numerous times like an EPROM. A set of communications protocols developed for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency to internetwork dissimilar systems. routine. 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